MAMMOTH LARGE COMPLETE ULNA LOWER ARM BONE WITH RARE COLOR AND
North Sea, Holland
PLEISTOCENE PERIOD: 200,000 - 20,000 years ago
the most impressive fossil bones to experience are complete,
well-preserved limb bones of one of the most famous beasts of
the last Ice Age, the Wooly mammoth, known scientifically
primigenius. This is a LEFT LOWER ARM BONE or ULNA and it is
an extraordinary specimen with spectacular bone detail and fully
preserved, dense end joint surfaces. The rich dark hue wonderfully
shows off the bone grain, scarring on the surface where muscle and
tendons were attached as well as natural pore anatomy in the bone.
Most mammoth bones are found in pieces - rarely are they discovered in
complete or even near complete condition. Seldom are the seen on
the market and when they are, they are heavily reconstructed and
restored to make a complete bone.
This very rare specimen has only
approximately 1-2% restoration, done strictly to fill a small are above
the distal end and to fill an area of part of one process off the
bone required no break repairs and was found intact and is in stunning
preservation and color. Prior to the bone being retrieved from the
ocean floor, it was fully buried and protected in the substrate
so the beautiful rich brown tones and impeccable detail of the bone
surface was preserved in a manner that is RARELY seen in mammoth bones. The entire bone
shows rarely preserved anatomy intact such as dramatic raised scarring
detail where massive muscle tendons were attached to the bone as shown
in the above last photos. Articulating joints are superbly
is one of the best of these we have ever had!
bone would be an ideal candidate for a museum Ice Age touch exhibit
piece or even to be used in reconstructing a complete Woolly Mammoth
limb. Dramatic bone grain
and detail along with its unique anatomy makes this a perfect bone to
demonstrate the unique features of the Mammoth. The bone has
been sealed in a chemical hardener to preserve its organic condition.
(ALL Ice Age mammal fossils are still mostly in an organic state.
They are NEVER petrified which would require millions of years). Truly
the large fossil mammoth bone would
make for a "show-stopping" exhibit when displayed in any private or public
Perfect to exhibit with
Primitive Man tools and artifacts since these beasts played
such an important part in so many ways of the lives of Neanderthals and
True European Woolly
mammoth fossils are far more scarce and rarer than Russian (Siberian)
fossils and fetch higher market prices because of this.
55 million years ago, the group of mammals called Proboscideans are
identified by the presence of tusks and a trunk and include mammoths,
mastodons and elephants. The oldest mammoth remains have placed
the beginnings of the beasts in Africa but eventually, they migrated to
Europe and Asia. Around 1.7 million years ago, the Ancestral
mammoth began reaching North America and later evolved into the
Columbian mammoth, otherwise known as the American mammoth.
mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) were first recorded in Eurasian
deposits of the second to the last Ice Age, approximately 150,000 years
ago. Woolly mammoths descended from the Steppe mammoths (Mammuthus
trogontherii). Over time, the cheek teeth of Woolly mammoths
evolved into a design of more numerous and tightly arranged enamel
plates with less thickness. The tusks of the Woolly mammoth
developed a more dramatic curvature and their overall body size
decreased. These changes were advantageous in surviving the
increasingly cold conditions of the last Ice Age. Such teeth
modifications enabled the Woolly mammoths to chew tougher tundra
vegetation. The reduction of body size accompanied by the
reduction of the ears and trunk along with the development of a thicker
pelt enabled the mammoths to survive in the harshness of a frozen world.
grown Woolly mammoth stood around 10 - 12 feet high at the shoulder and
weighed in at 6 - 8 tons. Despite connotations of the word
"mammoth" indicating immense proportions, the Woolly mammoth
is actually not the largest mammoth that ever lived. The Imperial mammoth
was the largest and the North American Columbian mammoth was even larger
than the Woolly mammoth. The Woolly mammoth was about the same
size as a present day Indian elephant but with a layer of fat and fur.
Preserved carcasses have been found in frozen tundra which allows us to
know what the heavy coat of the Woolly mammoth was like. Their fur
was similar to
that of the musk ox, consisting of long, dark hairs and fine under wool,
with dark-grey skin and an insulating fat layer. It is most likely
that Woolly mammoths molted in summer like
Musk oxen. Another prominent feature of the Woolly mammoth was a
high-domed skull with high-peaked shoulders resulting from the long
spines of the neck vertebrae likely to anchor a large fat deposit.
mammoths had smaller ears and a shorter trunk than modern-day elephants.
Many Woolly mammoths have been found with large, elaborately curved
tusks. Both the males and females possessed tusks, but the
females’ tusks were smaller. Tusks began to form at birth and
continued growing throughout life, adding about a 1/4 inch a year in
thickness as they grew. Most of the tusk is comprised of a
material called dentin but in layman's terms, we call it ivory.
The undersides of Woolly mammoth tusks often show wear, suggesting that
they were used in scraping snow and ice off ground cover vegetation
during feeding. Woolly mammoths also use their tusks for
protection against predators, attraction during mating and as a display
of dominance to other Woolly mammoths. The longest tusk ever found
was almost 16 feet and weighs 208 pounds.
teeth of a mammoth are amongst the most bizarre teeth of any animal ever
known. From the side, they resemble an extended accordion and are
made up of a row of vertically oriented attached plates that when worn,
create a washboard-like grinding surface. This
surface was ideally suited to grinding up hard-to-digest foods such as
tough grasses and other thick vegetation. A mammoth has four
teeth in its skull, two uppers (one on each side) and two lowers.
Over the course of the life of the animal, six sets of teeth will grow,
a worn set being pushed forward and out to make room for a new and
unworn set. This
characteristic is still true of modern elephants. A baby mammoth
at age 6 will have already had three sets of teeth. By 13 years of
age, the fourth set emerges followed by a fifth set at age 27 years.
The final set of teeth come in around 43 years of age and as it wears
away, the animal eventually starves to death and dies on average between
60 and 80 years of age. Interestingly, the animal's life is
limited by the fact that after the sixth set, no new teeth grow in to
replace the final worn down set and the animal is no longer able to chew
its food. Mammoth teeth can also tell us the age and species
of the creature. Scientists can approximate age by comparing the
length and width of the molars to corresponding age and tooth size
charts from modern elephants. The species is determined by the
number of ridges found in the first four inches of the flat chewing
the latter years of the last Ice Age, the Woolly mammoth co-existed with
humans such as the Neanderthal and the Cro-Magnon people.
Prehistoric cave paintings in France and Spain have been found with
images of the Woolly mammoth including hunting scenes. Throughout
world regions where Woolly mammoths existed at the same times as humans,
kill sites have been discovered where mammoth carcasses had been
butchered. At these sites, scientists have found both stone
tools and mammoth
bones displaying gashes and cuts, evidence of cutting and scraping
by humans using these stone tools.
It is believed that
the end of the last Ice Age and the warming of the Earth caused the
Woolly mammoths to die out at the end of the Pleistocene Period.
The DNA of an extinct wooly mammoth is 95% identical to an Indian
elephant. With recent discoveries of wooly mammoth remains frozen
in tundra, there are ongoing attempts to clone intact DNA with that of
the modern Indian elephant.
have been found in northern regions of North America, Eurasia and
ONE OF THE BEST OF
THESE WE HAVE EVER HAD WITH RARE LIGHT COLOR DUE TO BURIAL RATHER THAN
TRULY AN IMPRESSIVE BONE
TO SEE AND FEEL - A
FINEST GRADE PRIMARY LIMB BONE OF THE LARGEST BEAST OF EUROPE'S LAST ICE AGE!
Item - One Only