greatest milestone in human development that ushered in CIVILIZATION was
Man's discovery of crop farming and animal husbandry. In the
presence of an ample food and water supply, large camps eventually
evolved into the first cities of the world. These complex
societies flourished in the presence of stable resources. The
luxury of not being preoccupied with food provision gave humans the
freedom to pursue great feats of ingenuity and craftsmanship.
second most profound human accomplishment was the
discovery of metal ore smelting and making objects out of metal instead
of stone. Not only did this usher in a whole new age of
technological advancement, it brought a completely new medium to the
craftsman to create objects never before dreamed of. It also
allowed Man to craft tools and weapons in size and purpose that were
previously impossible with stone or organic resources. This made
everyday life easier when it came to improvements
in tools but it also made life much more dangerous with the advent of
the use of metal in weaponry. Axes, maces, swords, daggers,
hammers, arrowheads and spearheads were some of the many deadly new
discoveries in metal. The use of metal also allowed very sharp
edges to be retained and easily sharpened compared to stone. With
the advent of metal came the advent of WAR.
first metal used was copper in certain world regions of civilization.
Other regions went right to using bronze but at a later time.
Southeast Europe along with Western and Central Asia were the first
regions using copper dating back to the 4th millennium BC. This
early period of transition from using stone implements (NEOLITHIC
PERIOD) to using metal is called the
CHALCOLITHIC PERIOD (also known as
COPPER AGE or ENEOLITHIC PERIOD). Many ancient societies went from
the Neolithic Period to the Bronze Age. Some went from the
Neolithic Period right to the Iron Age, such as in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The predominant metal ages that follow the use of copper are the BRONZE
AGE and the IRON AGE.
majority of ancient societies started their metal use in the BRONZE AGE.
This can be identified with the discovery of smelting copper with tin to
make a harder metal that is harder than copper, will hold its edge
better and appear more gold in color than copper. The Bronze Age
varies in dating, relative to different geographical regions of the
globe. Universally speaking, the Bronze Age ranges from the 4th
millennium BC to the 1st millennium BC. It is during the Bronze
Age that metalworking becomes most advanced. Ancient craftsmanship
weapons, armor and art objects still astound modern artisans
today in technique and execution of designs, baffling many on just how
such work was accomplished in primitive workshops.